In order to ease deployment or testing strategies, Cliquet reads settings
from environment variables, in addition to
cliquet.storage_backend is read from environment variable
CLIQUET_STORAGE_BACKEND if defined, else from application
from internal defaults.
cliquet.project_name = project cliquet.project_docs = https://project.rtfd.org/ # cliquet.project_version = 1.3-stable # cliquet.http_api_version = 1.0
It can be useful to set the
project_version to a custom string, in order
to prevent disclosing information about the currently running version
(when there are known vulnerabilities for example).
# Limit number of batch operations per request # cliquet.batch_max_requests = 25 # Force pagination *(recommended)* # cliquet.paginate_by = 200 # Custom record id generator class # cliquet.id_generator = cliquet.storage.generators.UUID4
It is possible to deactivate specific resources operations, directly in the settings.
To do so, a setting key must be defined for the disabled resources endpoints:
- endpoint_type is either collection or record;
- resource_name is the name of the resource (by default, Cliquet uses the name of the class);
- method is the http method (in lower case): For instance
For instance, to disable the PUT on records for the Mushrooms resource, the
following setting should be declared in the
# Disable article collection DELETE endpoint cliquet.collection_article_delete_enabled = false # Disable mushroom record PATCH endpoint cliquet.record_mushroom_patch_enabled = false
Setting the service in readonly mode¶
It is also possible to deploy a Cliquet service in readonly mode.
Instead of having settings to disable every resource endpoint, the
can be set:
cliquet.readonly = true
This will disable every resources endpoints that are not accessed with one of
HEAD methods. Requests will receive a
405 Method not allowed error response.
This setting will also activate readonly heartbeat checks for the permission and the storage backend.
The cache backend will still needs read-write privileges, in order to cache OAuth authentication states and tokens for example.
If you do not need cache at all, set the
kinto.cache_backend setting to
an empty string to disable it.
# cliquet.backoff = 10 cliquet.retry_after_seconds = 30
Scheme, host and port¶
By default Cliquet does not enforce requests scheme, host and port. It relies on WSGI specification and the related stack configuration. Tuning this becomes necessary when the application runs behind proxies or load balancers.
Most implementations, like uwsgi, provide configuration variables to adjust it properly.
However if, for some reasons, this had to be enforced at the application level, the following settings can be set:
# cliquet.http_scheme = https # cliquet.http_host = production.server:7777
url value returned in the hello view.
Activate the service deprecation. If the date specified
eos is in the future, an alert will be sent to clients. If it’s in
the past, the service will be declared as decomissionned.
# cliquet.eos = 2015-01-22 # cliquet.eos_message = "Client is too old" # cliquet.eos_url = http://website/info-shutdown.html
Logging with Heka¶
Mozilla Services standard logging format can be enabled using:
cliquet.logging_renderer = cliquet.logs.MozillaHekaRenderer
With the following configuration, all logs are redirected to standard output (See 12factor app):
[loggers] keys = root [handlers] keys = console [formatters] keys = heka [logger_root] level = INFO handlers = console formatter = heka [handler_console] class = StreamHandler args = (sys.stdout,) level = NOTSET [formatter_heka] format = %(message)s
Handling exceptions with Sentry¶
raven package, or Cliquet installed with
pip install cliquet[monitoring].
Sentry logging can be enabled, as explained in official documentation.
The application sends an INFO message on startup, mainly for setup check.
Monitoring with StatsD¶
statsd package, or Cliquet installed with
pip install cliquet[monitoring].
StatsD metrics can be enabled (disabled by default):
cliquet.statsd_url = udp://localhost:8125 # cliquet.statsd_prefix = cliquet.project_name
cliquet.storage_backend = cliquet.storage.redis cliquet.storage_url = redis://localhost:6379/1 # Safety limit while fetching from storage # cliquet.storage_max_fetch_size = 10000 # Control number of pooled connections # cliquet.storage_pool_size = 50
See storage backend documentation for more details.
To activate event listeners, use the event_handlers setting, which takes a list of either:
- aliases (e.g.
- python modules (e.g.
Each listener will load load its dedicated settings.
In the example below, the Redis listener is activated and will send
data in the
queue Redis list.
cliquet.event_listeners = redis cliquet.event_listeners.redis.use = cliquet.listeners.redis cliquet.event_listeners.redis.url = redis://localhost:6379/0 cliquet.event_listeners.redis.pool_size = 5 cliquet.event_listeners.redis.listname = queue
It is possible to filter events by action and/or resource name. By
delete are notified
for every resources.
cliquet.event_listeners.redis.actions = create cliquet.event_listeners.redis.resources = article comment
cliquet.cache_backend = cliquet.cache.redis cliquet.cache_url = redis://localhost:6379/0 cliquet.cache_prefix = stack1_ # Control number of pooled connections # cliquet.storage_pool_size = 50
See cache backend documentation for more details.
It is possible to add cache control headers on a particular resource for anonymous requests. The client (or proxy) will use them to cache the resource responses for a certain amount of time.
By default, Cliquet indicates the clients to invalidate their cache
cliquet.mushroom_cache_expires_seconds = 3600
Basically, this will add both
Cache-Control: max-age=3600 and
Expire: <server datetime + 1H> response headers to the
If setting is set to
0, then the resource follows the default behaviour.
By default, CORS headers are cached by clients during 1H (
The duration can be set from settings. If set to empty or to 0, the header is not sent to clients.
cliquet.cors_max_age_seconds = 7200
Since user identification is hashed in storage, a secret key is required in configuration:
# cliquet.userid_hmac_secret = b4c96a8692291d88fe5a97dd91846eb4
Cliquet relies on pyramid multiauth to initialize authentication.
Therefore, any authentication policy can be specified through configuration.
For example, using the following example, Basic Auth, Persona and IP Auth are enabled:
multiauth.policies = basicauth pyramid_persona ipauth multiauth.policy.ipauth.use = pyramid_ipauth.IPAuthentictionPolicy multiauth.policy.ipauth.ipaddrs = 192.168.0.* multiauth.policy.ipauth.userid = LAN-user multiauth.policy.ipauth.principals = trusted
Similarly, any authorization policies and group finder function can be specified through configuration in order to deeply customize permissions handling and authorizations.
basicauth is mentioned among
multiauth.policies by default.
multiauth.policies = basicauth
By default, it uses an internal Basic Auth policy bundled with Cliquet.
In order to replace it by another one:
multiauth.policies = basicauth multiauth.policy.basicauth.use = myproject.authn.BasicAuthPolicy
Using the various Pyramid authentication packages, it is possible to plug any kind of authentication.
(Github/Twitter example to be done)
cliquet.permission_backend = cliquet.permission.redis cliquet.permission_url = redis://localhost:6379/1 # Control number of pooled connections # cliquet.permission_pool_size = 50
See permission backend documentation for more details.
ACEs are usually set on objects using the permission backend.
It is also possible to configure them from settings, and it will bypass the permission backend.
For example, for a resource named “bucket”, the following setting will enable authenticated people to create bucket records:
cliquet.bucket_create_principals = system.Authenticated
The format of these permission settings is
<resource_name>_<permission>_principals = comma,separated,principals.
See shareable resource documentation for more details.
It is possible to profile the application while its running. This is especially useful when trying to find slowness in the application.
Enable middlewares as described here.
Update the configuration file with the following values:
cliquet.profiler_enabled = true cliquet.profiler_dir = /tmp/profiling
Run a load test (for example):
SERVER_URL=http://localhost:8000 make bench -e
Render execution graphs using GraphViz:
sudo apt-get install graphviz
pip install gprof2dot gprof2dot -f pstats POST.v1.batch.000176ms.1427458675.prof | dot -Tpng -o output.png
In order to enable Cliquet middleware, wrap the application in the project
def main(global_config, **settings): config = Configurator(settings=settings) cliquet.initialize(config, __version__) app = config.make_wsgi_app() return cliquet.install_middlewares(app, settings)
In order to control what part of Cliquet should be run during application
startup, or add custom initialization steps from configuration, it is
possible to change the
This is considered as a dangerous zone and should be used with caution.
Later, a better formalism should be introduced to easily allow addition or removal of steps, without repeating the whole list and without relying on internal functions location.
cliquet.initialization_sequence = cliquet.initialization.setup_request_bound_data cliquet.initialization.setup_json_serializer cliquet.initialization.setup_logging cliquet.initialization.setup_storage cliquet.initialization.setup_permission cliquet.initialization.setup_cache cliquet.initialization.setup_requests_scheme cliquet.initialization.setup_version_redirection cliquet.initialization.setup_deprecation cliquet.initialization.setup_authentication cliquet.initialization.setup_backoff cliquet.initialization.setup_statsd cliquet.initialization.setup_listeners cliquet.events.setup_transaction_hook